Figures from the American Association of Dermatology show that psoriasis affects up to 7.5 million people in the United States. Psoriasis mostly occurs in people between the age of 15 and 35 years, with about 10 to 15 percent of this demographic getting it before age 10.
The condition has been found to affect up to 3.6 percent of Caucasians compared to just 1.9 percent of African Americans.
Psoriasis affects men and women at an equal rate. While psoriasis can affect anyone, people with illnesses such as heart disease and diabetes, or those with depression have a higher risk of developing this condition.
Psoriasis can be a serious autoimmune condition characterized by red, scaly patches that appear raised on the scalp, elbows or knees.
However, the rash can appear on any part of the skin including on the chest, back and in the armpits too. In most instances, the inflamed patch causes an itchy, burning sensation. Psoriasis is not contagious.
Causes of Psoriasis
Scientists are still unclear about the exact cause of Psoriasis. What is certain is that the immune system plays a significant role in the development of this condition. Psoriasis can also be genetically inherited.
A stimulus often triggers inflammation of the skin, causing the skin cells to multiply abnormally fast and resulting in the fiery patches associated with psoriasis.
To determine whether a person has psoriasis, a dermatologist would examine the affected skin. A biopsy may be necessary for diagnosis- this entails examining a piece of the affected skin under a microscope.
Usually, skin affected by psoriasis is inflamed and thicker than that affected by eczema.
In addition to examining your skin, your skin doctor may ask for information about your family history. Genetics are a major risk factor for psoriasis. Up to a third of people with a family history of psoriasis get the disease, according to research by the National Psoriasis Foundation.
Types of Psoriasis
The type of psoriasis you have will determine the most appropriate treatment for you. The different types of psoriasis include:
The most common type of psoriasis, plaque psoriasis typically affects the lower back, knees, elbows and scalp. It shows up as red patches covered by a layer of silvery white dead skin cells. The lesions can be itchy and this can cause them to crack and bleed.
Guttate psoriasis is common in children and young adults. A strep infection is a common trigger for guttate psoriasis, which appears as small dots on the skin.
The second most popular type of psoriasis, guttate affects as many as 10 percent of those who develop psoriasis.
Inverse psoriasis typically develops alongside another type of psoriasis that is already affecting a person.
This type of psoriasis appears as extremely red and shiny lesions behind the knee, groin or armpit.
Pustular psoriasis shows up as small blisters or pustules filled with pus and surrounded by inflamed skin that appears reddened. The pus is noninfectious. This type of psoriasis mostly affects the hands and feet but can appear on any part of the body.
Erythrodermic psoriasis is the most serious type of psoriasis. It appears as extremely red patches covering most of the body. These patches can be severely itchy and painful, causing the skin to peel off.
Erythrodermic psoriasis is rare, appearing in only 3 percent of people who have psoriasis and mostly in those who have an unstable form of plaque psoriasis.
Note: If you suspect that you have erythrodermic psoriasis, it is recommended that you see a doctor immediately.
Parts of the Body Typically Affected by Psoriasis
Psoriasis can affect any part of the body including nails, lips, mouth, feet, armpits, elbows, knees and beneath skin folds. Different treatments would be required for the different areas affected by the condition. Below are the parts that are most commonly affected by psoriasis:
Psoriasis of the scalp can be either very mild or very severe. Mild psoriasis appears as slight scaling of the scalp and easily goes away with treatment. Severe psoriasis can result in thick plaques that cover the whole scalp and may extend to the back of the neck, ears and the forehead.
When psoriasis affects the face, it often appears on the eyebrows, upper lips, the area between the nose and the lip, and on the forehead. Facial psoriasis needs careful treatment given the sensitivity of facial skin.
Inverse psoriasis mostly affects the genital region but other types of psoriasis can also affect this part of the body. Mostly diagnosed in men, genital psoriasis requires immediate treatment to mitigate the uncomfortable and often painful skin inflammation.
Inverse psoriasis may also develop beneath the breasts, in the armpits and inner thighs. Sweating and rubbing can cause further inflammation and worsen the psoriasis on these areas.
Feet, nails and hands
Just like facial psoriasis, hand and foot psoriasis needs to be treated immediately and with care. Often, the red patches may appear in the form of blisters and cracks that may be prone to infections.
Psoriasis of any type usually causes nail changes in up to 80 percent of people with this condition.
Levels of Severity
Psoriasis can be severe, moderate or mild depending on the extent to the body is affected and the impact it has on an individual’s quality of life.
Because this condition can be itchy and painful, it may hinder a person from carrying on with their activities of daily living.
Generally, psoriasis is considered mild if it affects less than 3 percent of the body. It is categorized as moderate if it affects between 3 and 10 percent of the body and severe if the psoriasis covers more than 10 percent of the body.
No matter the level of severity, psoriasis is a treatable disease. Mild psoriasis can be treated using over-the-counter tropical medications and shampoos but if these do not work, seek a doctor’s advice. Alternatively, take a look at this new FDA approved treatment here.
Doctors usually prescribe oral, tropical or injectable drugs depending on the severity of psoriasis. Mild to moderate psoriasis may only require tropical and oral medication while injectable and biologic medicines are usually prescribed for severe psoriasis.
Psoriatic arthritis is a form of psoriasis that causes stiffness, swelling and pain in the joints and may cause nail damage. Studies shows that an estimated 11 percent of people diagnosed with psoriasis also have psoriatic arthritis.
Overall, up to 30 percent of those who develop psoriasis will end up with psoriatic arthritis.Psoriatic arthritis may easily go undiagnosed especially when its symptoms are very mild.
However, as soon as a diagnosis is made, the condition should be treated immediately to avoid permanent damage to the joints.
Psoriasis in Children
According to the National Psoriasis Foundation, 20,000 children aged below 10 are affected by psoriasis each year. Misdiagnosis is common but not prevalent, given that psoriasis can be mistaken for other skin conditions. While rare, psoriasis can also affect infants.
In children, psoriasis may include symptoms such as discolored and pitted nails, diaper dermatitis, and severe plaque on the scalp, midsection of the body and the extremities.
There is a 10 percent chance that a child will develop psoriasis if one of the parents has the condition. The probability increases to 50 percent if both parents have psoriasis.
Even then, there is no way to predict whether a person will get psoriasis.A strep infection can trigger psoriasis in children.
Other factors that may activate psoriasis in children include earache, tonsillitis, bronchitis and other respiratory conditions. Psoriasis may also affect areas of skin that have been injured.
Psoriasis affects a small percentage of the population, just about 2 to 3 percent. Whether this condition manifests mildly or severely, it is important to have it treated immediately.
It is recommended that you consult with a dermatologist if you have severe psoriasis or if your psoriasis is accompanied by unusual pain and swelling of the joints.
The earlier you treat this condition, the fewer adverse impacts it will have on your quality of life.